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Titanic Inquiry in London

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Titanic Inquiry in London

Post by Karen on Tue 1 May 2012 - 8:37

THROUGH SEA OF BODIES.
THRILLING STORIES AT TITANIC INQUIRY.

WARNING OF ICE.
STRUCK BERG WHEN MAKING 21 KNOTS.

The Court of Inquiry appointed by the Government to investigate the loss of the Titanic opened its sittings on Thursday at the London Scottish Drill Hall, Buckingham Gate, S.W. Lord Mersey presided, and was accompanied by the five assessors nominated by the Board of Trade.
The proceedings opened without any formality, and immediately the Attorney-General rose to express the grief of the Government at the catastrophe and their sympathy with the bereaved. Sir Robert Finlay, on behalf of the White Star Line, made similar expression, and Lord Mersey added the regret and sympathy of the Commissioners.
These preliminaries over, Sir Rufus Isaacs plunged right into a sea of legal technicalities regarding the constitution and powers of the court, and afterwards outlined the scope of the inquiry in twenty-six points.
In a speech occupying many hours the Attorney-General on Friday told the story of the Titanic's voyage, mentioning that the vessel was warned by two other ships of the presence of ice, and that when she struck the berg she was travelling at twenty-one knots an hour.
A look-out man, who was on duty on the night of the disaster, confirmed the story of the warning, saying he received it by telephone from the bridge. He, however, saw no ice.
Of the terrible scenes after the Titanic collided with the iceberg a thrilling description was given by a seaman, who told of the rush for the boats and of how they had to row through a sea covered with dead bodies.

AIM OF THE INQUIRY.
To Help in Promoting Safety of Lives and Vessels at Sea.

In opening, Sir Rufus Isaacs said it was the earnest desire of the Administration that a searching and thorough inquiry should be made, with the object of ascertaining as fully and precisely as possible the circumstances surrounding the casualty, and also of deducing such lessons and arriving at such conclusions as may help to promote hereafter the safety of vessels and lives at sea.
The Attorney-General read a number of paragraphs from the Statutory Rules and Orders, 1907, governing the inquiry. Rule 3, he said, dealt with the notice of investigation which had to be served upon the owner, master, and officers of the ship, as well as upon any person who, in the opinion of the Board of Trade, ought to be served with such notice.
That notice contained a statement of the questions which, on the information then in possession of the Board of Trade, they intended to raise on the hearing of the investigation. It may be convenient for me just to indicate what those questions are.
Questions 1 to 2, inclusive, refer to what happened before the casualty, and before there was any question, suggestion, or warning that the Titanic was approaching ice.
Questions 9 to 14 relate to the suggestion of warning given to the Titanic, and ask what was done in regard to the look-out or other precautions before the casualty. That is to say, it is suggested by those questions that those responsible for the navigation of the Titanic were warned that they were approaching ice, and then the questions are put in order to ascertain what course was adopted by those responsible for the Titanic after they received such warning, if they did receive it.
Question 15 is a question relating to the casualty itself.
Sixteen to 24 relate to the events after the casualty, what steps were taken either to save the vessel or to save life, and then there is a general question, 25, which relates to the construction and equipment of the Titanic as a passenger steamer and emigrant ship for the Atlantic service.
Twenty-six is a question which relates to the rules and regulations under the Merchant Shipping Act and to the administration of this Act, and rules and regulations made under these recommendations and the suggestions the court might think fit to make with a view to promoting the safety of persons at sea.

Story of the Voyage.

Sir Rufus Isaacs on Friday proceeded to tell the story of the Titanic's voyage from the official standpoint. Having described the departure of the Titanic, Sir Rufus described the life-saving apparatus. There were on board fourteen lifeboats, two other boats, and 3,560 lifebelts, and forty-eight lifebuoys. The vessel had watertight compartments and so long as not more than two of these were flooded the liner would float.
It was a quiet and successful voyage up to the time of the casualty. The weather was very fine all the way, and the wind W. and S.W. The temperature was rather cold on April 14, which was the date of the tragedy. That night was clear, but there was no moon.
The vessel was proceeding at twenty-one knots, and, so far as he was able to gather from the evidence, that speed was never reduced. She continued at that speed during April 14 and right up to the time of the collision with the icebergs, notwithstanding warnings that there were icebergs in the neighbourhood.
Sir Rufus said he was able to bring before the court evidence that two vessels, the Caronia and the Baltic, by means of wireless telegraphy, informed the Titanic that icebergs, growlers [ice that is level with the water], and field ice were reported in the track. The spot where the vessel struck was near latitude 41 deg., 41 North, and longitude 50 deg., 15 West.
Sir Rufus handed up to the Commissioners a route chart of the Atlantic marked with a cross to indicate the spot and pointed out that there were more southerly tracks for vessels between Jan. 15 and Aug. 14.
"It is in our view," said Sir Rufus, "important that notice was given and received by the Titanic during April 14 that there were icebergs in these latitudes. The Caronia's notice was given in the morning at nine o'clock, and was acknowledged the same morning at 9:44 by the Titanic. The Baltic reported ice in 49 deg. 9 min. West and 50 deg. 20 min. West on the outward southern track and this was acknowledged by the Titanic at one o'clock New York time, or roughly three o'clock by the Titanic's time.

Titanic's Position.

"Where was the Titanic when she received the Caronia's message, and where was she when she received the Baltic's message?" asked the President. "That will give us an idea of the speed at which she was travelling. I want that."
Sir Rufus Isaacs said he only had the positions approximately, but he agreed with Lord Mersey when he asked, "Am I right in saying that she ran into the locality of the ice after she had been warned?"
Asked whether there was any disagreement as to the spot where the Titanic struck, Sir Rufus said there could not be, "for the wireless message "Sinking," though I mention it out of its proper order, gives the latitude as 41.16 N., and the longitude as 50 deg. 14 West.
Archie Jewell, who was in the crow's-nest with another seaman named Symons from eight to ten on the night of the disaster, was the first witness, and was examined by Sir John Simon. He said no one else was on the look-out forward because it was a clear night. About 9:30 a telephone message came from the bridge to keep a sharp look-out for ice. Up to that time they had seen none.
And from the time you got that message to when you went off duty did you keep a sharp look-out? - Yes.
Did you see any ice? - No; not while I was on the watch.
Supposing you had seen something ahead, and you wanted to send a warning, how would you have done it from the crow's-nest? - Struck the bell three times.
When the ship struck, said Jewell, he was in his bunk. He was wakened by the crash of the collision and ran on deck. When the boats were lowered he went to his allotted position, at No. 7 boat. There was no excitement. All the boats were down before No. 7 pulled away. From the time they pulled away until the ship sank would be about an hour and a half.
Did you see what happened before the ship went down? - I saw the stern straight up in the air.
Were the lights still burning? - As the stern went up in the air all the lights went out. I heard more than one explosion; there were two or three.
In reply to Mr. Scanlan, M.P. (Seaman's Union): Jewell said he had had no glasses. There was a box for glasses on the Titanic, but nothing in it.
At Southampton or anywhere else, were the stewards and firemen trained to lower the boats? - No.

Struggle for the Boats.

The court adjourned for lunch, and on the resumption Mr. Lloyd George occupied a seat beside the solicitor to the Board of Trade.
A terrible, but enthralling description of the scenes after the Titanic struck was given by Joseph Scarrott, an A.B. He said his watch was from eight to twelve on the Sunday night. He heard three bells struck in the crow's-nest, and soon afterwards he felt a vibration as if the engines had been suddenly reversed. There was no direct impact. Orders were given to turn out the boats. The iceberg was about the height of the boat-deck, about 60 ft. It looked like the Rock of Gibraltar, looking at it from Europa Point, only smaller.
When they were told to lower the boats the order was that the women and children were to go first. About twenty men tried to get into Scarrott's boat. Some men tried to rush the boat. They were foreigners who did not seem to understand the order.
"I had to use strong persuasion," explained Scarrott. "I had to knock them down with the boat's tiller. One man jumped in twice, and I had to throw him out each time. I told the chief officer of the trouble I had had to keep the men back, and he pulled out his revolver and fired two shots between the boat and the ship's side to warn the men who were about there."
Describing the foundering of the ship, Scarrott said she sank gradually until the water reached the bridge. The stern was raised, and he could see the propeller and part of the keel. Then the ship went down quickly.
Mr. Lowe, the fifth officer, ordered the boats under his charge to row to the spot immediately after the ship sank to pick up people in the water. Mr. Lowe directed that four boats should be fastened together, his idea being that they would form a large object which could be more easily seen by a passing steamer. His own boat rowed among the wreckage where they had heard moans, and found themselves among hundreds of bodies floating in lifebelts. On the outskirt the bodies seemed to be in a cluster.
"We could hear cries coming from the wreckage," said Scarrott. "As we got towards the centre of the wreckage I saw one man. I believe he was the storekeeper. He was on a piece of the staircase - at least it was a big piece of wreckage. He was kneeling there as if he was praying, and at the same time calling for help. At the time we were within twenty yards of him, but there was so much wreckage - perhaps not as much wreckage as bodies - that we could not get to the man.
"We found we could not get through because of the bodies. I am sorry to say we had to push the bodies out of the way to get anywhere near the man. Even then we could not get quite to him, so we put out an oar, and he took hold of it, and we pulled him into our boat like that. It was terrible to be rowing amongst the dead bodies, but in this way we picked up four men clinging to wreckage."
The court adjourned until Tuesday, and it was announced that tomorrow the Commission will visit Southampton to inspect the Olympic.

Mr. Ismay sailed from New York for England on Thursday on board the Adriatic.

SURVIVORS COME HOME.
Heroic Deeds and Brave Rescue Work Described.

SAVING THE WOMEN.

One hundred and sixty-seven survivors of the Titanic's crew, including twenty stewardesses, were landed at Plymouth on Sunday from the Red Star liner Lapland. They tell many thrilling stories of heroism, and throw some further light on the calamity.
In rough and simple language the men relate instances of great heroism. Among the heroes in the list of the lost who have not yet had their due meed of praise are the boys who carried up the biscuits for provisioning the boats.
Without a word of complaint or a thought of themselves these lads went on with their humble duties till the last boat left, and not one of them was saved.
"If you ask me who were the real heroes of the disaster," said a steward of the first-class saloon to an interviewer, "I should say Colonel Gracie came first; he was the best American there. Then there was Mr. Andrews, one of the designers of the ship, who was here, there and everywhere, helping always, giving advice, warning, and encouragement, and never troubling about his own life. He did not even put on a lifebelt, nor, of course, did Captain Smith, who behaved splendidly. Captain Smith's last words were not "Be British," although by sentiment they might have been; they were, "I'm finished. Look after yourselves."
Those little feminine touches that invariably add a fresh point of view to life's incidents asserted themselves when the stewardesses came to tell their experiences.
All spoke with enthusiasm of the ship's officers and gentlemen generally, and in nearly every case specific mention was made of Mr. Andrews.

Joked at the Warning.

But among those who had remembered and observed most were Mrs. Gold and Mrs. Martin, both stewardesses in the first cabin. They were old shipmates, having been on the Olympic and the Cedric together. Like nearly all the other stewardesses, they were in bed at the time the ship struck, and were awakened by a steward, who came down and said, "Get up, girls. We have struck something." They answered, "Go on; you're only pulling our legs."
"Then" - so they went on - "Mr. Andrews came and warned us, and said that we had really better get up and put on our things; but that we were not to be nervous. We did so, and afterwards tried to rouse some of the lady passengers, but one and all refused at first to budge. On Mr. Andrews's advice we put on our lifebelts. They felt rather funny at first, but helped to keep us warm when we were in the boats.
"Our boat was the third from the last. After we had got into the boat we found that two Germans had hidden in the bottom of it - they were undoubtedly Germans. They were crying all the time and holding on to us, and one of them covered himself with my skirt. We could hear him counting his money. We tried to get them to help in the rowing. One of them did a little, and jabbed the other with the oar to try to get him to exert himself, but he made no effort.

Rag-Time Tunes.

"While we were getting into the boats the band were in the saloon playing rag-time tunes, with their lifebelts by their side. They did not stop to put them on. One man, a member of the crew, dropped into the boat at the last moment, and severely hurt a lady's ankle. But in the main the men were splendid. They had tremendous difficulty in getting the women to go into the boats. No woman at all would go into the first boat, and it was filled with firemen. Except these and the men who saved themselves by jumping, and those who were told off to man the boats, I don't think there were any saved.
"At the time the ship broke in two we could see the heads of departments all gathered in a little group together. Some of our stewardesses were lost by refusing to go on the boats. Mrs. Latimer, a second-cabin stewardess, after helping in getting the ladies off, just said, "That's all right," refusing to go in a boat herself, and saying she was safer where she was. The steerage stewardesses also refused.
"We saw Mr. Ismay in the last boat but one. He was sitting crouched on the gunwale, looking very blue, and with only a greatcoat over his pyjamas. He had been helping with the boats before that. One stewardess, after she had helped to get off the lady passengers, was offered by him a place in a boat, but said, "Oh, no; I'm only a stewardess." But Mr. Ismay persuaded her to get in.
"In our boat, of course, were many touching cases of husbands and wives separated. One was that of Mrs. Arthur Ryerson. Mr. Ryerson was drowned, though his wife and two daughters were saved. He was on a journey from England in answer to a cablegram saying that his son was killed in a motor accident.
"One Portuguese girl had just been married. She had lost her husband, and was in such an hysterical condition that when we sighted the Carpathia she refused to believe that it was not the Titanic. Her disillusionment was heart-rending.
All the stewardesses corroborated the story of the Countess of Rothes having rowed, delicate though she was. "She was a splendid woman," one of them said. "We used to call her the ripping little countess," and on the Carpathia she tenderly cared for the steerage women and children, and made clothes for the babies.

Source: Lloyd's Weekly News, May 5, 1912, Page 6

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Re: Titanic Inquiry in London

Post by Karen on Wed 2 May 2012 - 5:55

SAFETY AT SEA.

In Lord Mersey's report on the terrible Titanic disaster the findings are pretty much those at which any man of sense would arrive; while the conclusions are at once sensible and practical. On one important point, his lordship is at variance with most of the expert witnesses; yet at one with so distinguished an Arctic navigator as Sir Ernest Shackleton. It will be remembered that the question was raised whether Captain Smith should, or should not, have "slowed down" when it became known that the Titanic was in the region of ice. The Atlantic steamship captains, who were examined, gave it as their opinion that slackening speed was of little use as a precaution against disaster, and that the right thing to do was to go ahead and keep a vigilant look-out for icebergs. On this point Sir Ernest Shackleton emphatically disagreed with these witnesses, and his evidence afforded almost the only touch of humour in the serious business of the inquiry. Lord Mersey elicited the fact that Sir Ernest's ship had a speed of only six knots an hour, and yet he slowed down when in the neighbourhood of dangerous ice. "To what did you get?" asked Lord Mersey, and Sir Ernest Shackleton replied, "We got near to the South Pole, my lord." There was point, as well as humour, in the reply, for the distinguished Antarctic navigator, by taking the precaution to reduce speed, brought his ship safely through all perils. The high speed of the Titanic was maintained, and she, her commander, and many of her crew, lie at the bottom of the Atlantic.
It is pleasant to notice that Lord Mersey does not blame Captain Smith, and he gives his reasons, and, also, the reasons why Captain Smith continued to drive his ship at the high speed of twenty-two knots an hour after he had been warned that he was in a dangerous ice zone.

"It was shown," says Lord Mersey, "that for many years past - indeed, for a quarter of a century or more - the practice of liners using this track when in the vicinity of ice at night had been in clear weather to keep the course, to maintain the speed, and to trust to a sharp look-out to enable them to avoid the danger. This practice, it was said, had been justified by experience, no casualties having resulted from it. I accept the evidence as to the practice and as to the immunity from casualties which is said to have accompanied it. But the event has proved the practice to be bad. Its root is probably to be found in competition and in the desire of the public for quick passages rather than in the judgment of navigators. But, unfortunately, experience appeared to justify it."

One certain result of this inquiry must be that the practice of keeping up this speed in the neighbourhood of ice will have to be abandoned. For the finding of the Court is that the loss of the Titanic was "due to collision with an iceberg brought about by the excessive speed at which the ship was being navigated." In face of this finding, it is difficult to see how shipping companies can allow their commanders to maintain high speed when ice is about. And yet the finding is not strictly accurate, for it is open to argument that the Titanic would have struck the iceberg no matter at what speed she was going. The real cause of the disaster was less the speed at which the vessel was driven through the water than the taking of a course which brought the vessel right across the icefield, together with the insufficiency of the look-out.
The familiar saying that it requires a great disaster to produce some very obvious reforms is justified here. The Court suggests, for instance, that the number of boats carried should be proportionate to the number of passengers, instead of to tonnage, as it is at present, in accordance with an old Board of Trade regulation that should have been revised years ago. Other important recommendations are that if the number of deck hands carried is not sufficient to man the boats, other ratings should be required to qualify for the work; that there should be more frequent boat drills on board; that a police system should be instituted to secure discipline, and, most important of all, better provision should be made for training seamen for the mercantile marine. At present there is practically no provision for training the men who follow this calling; any man can take a "pierhead jump" and ship before the mast. The Court also recommends that boats should be kept better provisioned and have lamps and signalling apparatus on board, and that all passenger ships should carry a "wireless" installation on board with two operators to relieve each other, so that one can always be in constant attendance. These all seem very sensible and very obvious suggestions, and the pity is that it should have required a disaster, attended with heavy loss of life, before they could be proposed. If Lord Mersey's idea is carried out they will come before an international conference, and it is to be hoped that the result will be greater safety for those who "go down to the sea in ships" either for business or pleasure.

Source: Lloyd's Weekly News, August 4, 1912, Page 12

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Re: Titanic Inquiry in London

Post by Karen on Thu 3 May 2012 - 10:54

TITANIC INQUIRY REPORT BLAMES THE CALIFORNIAN.
EXCESSIVE SPEED AND CAPTAIN SMITH'S "GRIEVOUS ERROR" CAUSED DISASTER.

MR. ISMAY AND DUFF GORDONS CLEARED.

The main finding of the report of the inquiry into the Titanic disaster, delivered by Lord Mersey on Tuesday is that

The loss of the Titanic was due to collision with an iceberg brought about by the excessive speed at which the ship was being navigated.
Experience seemed to have justified the practice of Transatlantic liners maintaining speed in the vicinity of ice, and Captain Smith, declares the report, made a grievous mistake, but one in which, in the face of practice and experience, negligence cannot be said to have any part.
Lord Mersey criticised the Board of Trade for delay in revising the rules as to boat accommodation, and expressed the opinion that the Californian could have pushed her way through the ice without serious risk, and so have saved many, if not all, the lives that were lost.
The audience of three hundred who listened to the report craned forward to catch every word of reference to the attacks on Mr. Ismay and the Duff-Gordons. It was not, said the report, incumbent on Mr. Bruce Ismay to remain on board until the vessel foundered, and the very gross charge against Sir Cosmo Duff-Gordon of having bribed seamen to row away from drowning people was unfounded.

GROUNDLESS ATTACKS.
"Very Gross" Imputation Disproved by the Evidence.

Lord Mersey read his report of seventy-four printed foolscap pages to between 200 and 300 persons in the London Scottish Drill Hall in Buckingham Gate.
Lord Mersey alluded to "the attack made in the course of the inquiry on the moral conduct of two of the passengers, Sir Cosmo Duff-Gordon and Mr. Bruce Ismay," and continued:

The very gross charge against Sir Cosmo Duff-Gordon that, having got into No. 1 boat, he bribed the men in it to row away from drowning people, is unfounded. The members of the crew in that boat might have made some attempt to save the people in the water, and such an attempt would probably have been unsuccessful; but I do not believe that the men were deterred from making the attempt by any act of Sir C. Duff-Gordon.

"At the same time," Lord Mersey went on, "I think that if he had encouraged the men to return, they would probably have made an effort to do so, and could have saved some lives."
As to the attack on Mr. Bruce Ismay, it resolved itself into the suggestion that, occupying the position of managing director of the steamship company, some moral duty was imposed upon him to wait on board until the vessel foundered. I do not agree. Mr. Ismay, after rendering assistance to many passengers, found the last collapsible boat on the starboard side actually being lowered. No other people were there at the time. There was room for him, and he jumped in. Had he not jumped in he would merely have added one more life, his own, to the number of those lost.

FIVE MILES OFF.
Californian, Amid Loose Ice, with Sole Marconi Operator Asleep.

As to the ice warnings received by the Titanic, Lord Mersey said:

Mr. Ismay, the managing director of the White Star Line, was on board, and the master handed the Baltic message to Mr. Ismay almost immediately it was received. Mr. Ismay showed this message to two ladies, and it is, therefore, probable that many persons on board became aware of its contents. This message ought, in my opinion, to have been put on the board in the chart-room as soon as it was received. It remained, however, in Mr. Ismay's possession until 7:15 p.m., when the master asked Mr. Ismay to return it. It was then that it was first posted in the chart-room.
This, Lord Mersey said, was considerably before the time at which the vessel reached the position recorded in the messages.

There was a fifth message received in the Marconi room at 9:40 p.m. from the Mesaba and if it had reached the bridge would, perhaps, have affected the navigation of the vessel. Unfortunately, it does not appear to have been delivered to the master or to any of the officers. The Marconi operator was very busy transmitting messages via Cape Race for passengers on board, and the probability is that he failed to grasp the importance of the message. It was never acknowledged by Captain Smith, and I am satisfied that it was not received by him.

EFFECT OF COMPETITION.

As to the fact that Captain Smith knew he was in the proximity of ice and neither turned to the southward to avoid it nor reduced speed as night approached. Lord Mersey pointed out that according to the evidence it has been the practice of liners for a quarter of a century or more to maintain the speed in clear weather at night, even in the vicinity of ice, and trust to a sharp look-out. He proceeded:

But the event has proved the practice to be bad. Its root is probably to be found in competition, and in the desire of the public for quick passages, rather than in the judgment of navigators. But, unfortunately, experience appeared to justify it. In these circumstances I am not able to blame Captain Smith. He had not the experience which his own misfortune has afforded to those whom he has left behind, and he was doing only that which other skilled men would have done in the same position.
It was suggested that he was yielding to influences which ought not to have affected him; that the presence of Mr. Ismay on board, and the knowledge which he, perhaps, had of a conversation between Mr. Ismay and the chief engineer at Queenstown about the speed of the ship and the consumption of coal, probably induced him to neglect precautions which he would otherwise have taken. But I do not believe this.
Lord Mersey declared Captain Smith was exercising his own discretion. He went on:

He made a mistake, a very grievous mistake, but one in which, in face of the practice and of past experience, negligence cannot be said to have had any part; and in the absence of negligence it is, in my opinion, impossible to fix Captain Smith with blame.
To run a ship in accordance with this mistaken practice in future would lay the captain open to the charge of negligence. The report that 914 left the ship was unreliable, for only 712 were saved.

Another remarkable discrepancy was that 189 were, in fact, men of the crew, 129 were male passengers, and 394 were women and children. In other words, the real proportion of women to men saved was much less than the proportion appearing in the evidence from the boats. Allowing for those subsequently picked up, only 652 could have left the Titanic in boats, or an average of about 36 per boat.
If the after-gangway doors had been opened, more passengers might have been induced to enter the boats, some of which left with comparatively few people in them.

LIVES NEEDLESSLY LOST.

If women could not be induced to enter the boats, the boats ought then to have been filled up with men.
These boats left behind them many hundreds of lives to perish......
I heard much evidence as to conduct of the boats after the Titanic sank, and when there must have been many struggling people in the water, and I regret to say that, in my opinion, some at all events of the boats failed to attempt to save lives when they might have done so, and might have done so successfully. This was particularly the case with boat No. 1.

There appeared to have been no truth in the suggestion that the third-class passengers were unfairly treated. They showed greater reluctance to leave the ship and part with their baggage, and their quarters were at the remote ends of the ship.
"The Californian," observed his lordship, "heard none of the Titanic's messages; she had only one Marconi operator on board, and he was asleep."

The circumstances convince me that the ship seen by the Californian was the Titanic, and, if so, according to Captain Lord, the two vessels were about five miles apart at the time. The ice by which the Californian was surrounded was loose ice, extending for a distance of not more than two or three miles in the direction of the Titanic. The night was clear and the sea was smooth.
When she first saw the rockets the Californian could have pushed through the ice to the open water without any serious risk, and so have come to the assistance of the Titanic. Had she done so she might have saved many, if not all, of the lives that were lost.

Reviewing the history of the action of the Board of Trade in relation to the provision of boat accommodation on emigrant ships, his lordship said:
"The outstanding circumstance in it is the omission, during so many years, to revise the rules of 1894, and this, I think, was blameable, notwithstanding the excuse or explanation put forward by Sir Alfred Chalmers."
The court found that Captain Rostron, of the Carpathia, merited great admiration for his action in proceeding to the scene and picking up the survivors, and that the look-out on the Titanic was not sufficient.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

In addition to his findings on the casualty itself, Lord Mersey made a number of recommendations of far-reaching importance. Among them are these:

That the newly appointed Bulkhead Committee should inquire into various matters of construction bearing on the floatability of ships, including a longitudinal, vertical, water-tight bulkhead on each side of the vessel.
That the Board of Trade, to the extent to which they approve of them, should seek statutory powers to give effect to them.
That the provision of lifeboat and raft accommodation should be based on the number of persons carried, and not upon tonnage.
That all boats should be treated with a protective, continuous fender, to lessen the risk of damage when being lowered in a sea-way.
That one of the boats should be fitted with some form of mechanical propulsion.
That the Board of Trade inspection of boats and life-saving apparatus should be more searching than hitherto.
That steps should be taken to encourage the training of boys for the merchant service.
That the men to man the boats should have more frequent drills.
That on ships a police system should be organised, so as to secure obedience to orders and proper control in times of emergency.
That there should be wireless installations in operation night and day.
That steps should be taken to call an International Conference to consider as to some common line of conduct in regard to sub-division of ships, live-saving appliances, and so forth.

150 POUNDS FOR TWO CHILDREN.

Two children, nineteen and fifteen, of Harry Baxter, a third-class steward who perished in the Titanic, were awarded 150 pounds compensation in the City of London Court on Monday. The father had not provided them with a home since the spring of 1909.
They would have been entitled to 288 pounds, but in the circumstances the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company had paid 150 pounds into court.

Over 330 pounds has been subscribed towards the proposed memorial at Godalming to Jack Phillips, the chief Marconi wireless operator on the Titanic, who was a native of the town. The mayor wants 400 pounds.
Miss Gertrude Jekyll is to be asked to design the memorial, which will take the form of a drinking fountain. About an acre and a half of land will be made into a playground.

Source: Lloyd's Weekly News, August 4, 1912, Page 9

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Re: Titanic Inquiry in London

Post by Karen on Sat 12 May 2012 - 1:00

NAVAL ARCHITECT'S EVIDENCE.
INSUFFICIENT BOATS.

LONDON, June 10.

At the Titanic inquiry the Right Hon. A. Carlisle, consultant and advisor to Harland and Wolff, said that he told the Merchants' Shipping Act Committee that the Titanic was insufficiently supplied with boats before she sailed. She should have had 48 boats, instead of 16. He also communicated this intelligence to the owners.
Mr. Blackett, naval architect, said the Titanic sank owing to the bulkheads giving way. The problem of bulkheads was still unsolved.

Source: Colonist, Volume LIV, Issue 13441, 12 June 1912, Page 5

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Re: Titanic Inquiry in London

Post by Karen on Tue 15 May 2012 - 9:18

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Sir Rufus Isaacs, who has just returned from the Continent, evinced great interest in the boat accommodation of the steamer in which he crossed the Channel. In our photograph he is seen talking to one of the ship's officers. It will be remembered that Sir Rufus Isaacs acted as counsel for the Board of Trade during the recent enquiry into the loss of the "Titanic."

Source: Penny Illustrated Paper, Saturday September 21, 1912; Page 356; Issue 2678

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